E-ISSN 2536-9520 | ISSN 1110-2047
 

Original Article 


Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt

Ferial M. Sahwan, Mahmoud M.A. Elmaghraby, Athanas Ngounndji, Mohammed M. Fathalla.

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible factors affecting the number of days in milk to first breeding (DIMFB), days open (DO) and pregnancy by 400 days in milk (PREG400) in Holstein cows kept in a large herd under the subtropical conditions of Egypt. Lactation and health records of 2040 cows in a large herd covering the period between 2016 and 2017 were used. We analyzed the data using Cox proportional hazard analysis and generalized linear models. Only 38.2% of cows required less than 120 DIM to conceive, and approximately one-third of pregnancies occurred later than 200 DIM. Cows in second or higher parities recorded 5 DIMFB earlier (P<0.01) than first parity cows. Moderate and high yielders had longer intervals to first service relative to low producing cows (P<0.05). Clinical mastitis and lameness significantly (P<0.01) prolonged DIMFB by 4.6 d and 3.4 d, respectively. Moderate and high yielding cows had a lower chance for PREG400 (0.77 and 0.67, respectively) and longer DO relative to low yielding cows. Calving in the spring and summer months was associated with a decreased hazard of PREG400 (HR: 0.80 and 0.84) than calving in the winter. First breeding later than 65 DIM reduced the chance of PREG400 by 22% and extended DO by 26 days (P<0.05) compared earlier inseminations. Furthermore, lameness, clinical mastitis, and reproductive disorders significantly (P<0.01) extended the DO by 24, 49, and 36 days, respectively, and decreased significantly the HR for PREG400 by 28%, 44%, and 26%, respectively compared with non-affected counterparts. In summary, Holstein cows kept in settings equivalent to the study herd showed reduced fertility. High milk output, hot weather, first breeding after 65 DIM, and affection with clinical mastitis, lameness, and reproductive difficulties, and to a lesser extent, parity, were identified as factors limiting fertility.

Key words: DIMFB, DO, PREG400, Holstein cattle


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sahwan FM, Elmaghraby MM, Ngounndji A, Fathalla MM. Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt. AJVS. 2021; 71(2): 45-55. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722


Web Style

Sahwan FM, Elmaghraby MM, Ngounndji A, Fathalla MM. Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt. https://www.alexjvs.com/?mno=29722 [Access: April 29, 2022]. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sahwan FM, Elmaghraby MM, Ngounndji A, Fathalla MM. Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt. AJVS. 2021; 71(2): 45-55. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sahwan FM, Elmaghraby MM, Ngounndji A, Fathalla MM. Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt. AJVS. (2021), [cited April 29, 2022]; 71(2): 45-55. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722



Harvard Style

Sahwan, F. M., Elmaghraby, . M. M., Ngounndji, . A. & Fathalla, . M. M. (2021) Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt. AJVS, 71 (2), 45-55. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722



Turabian Style

Sahwan, Ferial M., Mahmoud M.A. Elmaghraby, Athanas Ngounndji, and Mohammed M. Fathalla. 2021. Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 71 (2), 45-55. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722



Chicago Style

Sahwan, Ferial M., Mahmoud M.A. Elmaghraby, Athanas Ngounndji, and Mohammed M. Fathalla. "Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 71 (2021), 45-55. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sahwan, Ferial M., Mahmoud M.A. Elmaghraby, Athanas Ngounndji, and Mohammed M. Fathalla. "Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 71.2 (2021), 45-55. Print. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sahwan, F. M., Elmaghraby, . M. M., Ngounndji, . A. & Fathalla, . M. M. (2021) Factors Affecting Days Postpartum to First Service, Days Open and Pregnancy Hazard in Holstein Cows Kept under the Subtropical Conditions of Egypt. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 71 (2), 45-55. doi:10.5455/ajvs.29722





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