E-ISSN 2536-9520 | ISSN 1110-2047
 

Original Article 


Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok.

Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from the skin, wound and anterior vagina of sheep, goats and dogs and their susceptibility to graded concentrations of Penicillin and Streptomycin combination (Penstrep®) in Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 70 female animals (31 ewes, 24 does and 15 bitches) were sampled. Six bacteria types (Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacteria spp) were obtained from 179 isolates with no significant differences (p>0.05) between the proportion of these bacteria isolates amongst the animals studied. Eighty-seven bacterial isolates from skin and wound comprising of 7 bacteria types (Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacteria spp, Pseudomonas aeroginosa) were also found. The proportion of these bacteria isolates among the ewes, does and bitches were also not significantly different (p>0.05). All the bacteria were sensitive to Gentamycin and Ofloxacin. In addition, all the bacteria except Corynebacterium spp were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. However, the bacteria were resistant to Cefuroxine, Ampicillin, Amoxycillin and Floxapen. It was found that B. subtilis was sensitive to Penstrep® at concentrations of 10 mg/ml. Moreso, E. coli, S. aureus, Proteus spp, P. aeruginosa, S. pyogenes and Corynebacterium spp were also sensitive to Penstrep®. However, S. pyogenes and Corynebacterium spp were not sensitive to Penstrep® at 10 mg/ml and the zone of inhibition at 20 mg/ml was least among the bacteria isolated. It was concluded that multi-drug resistant bacteria were resident on the skin, wounds and anterior vagina of the domestic animals studied and there is a need to sensitize animal health professionals in the region of their presence.

Key words: Animals, vagina, wound, bacteria, antibiotic, susceptibility


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo
Articles by Innocent D. Peter
Articles by Muhammad M. Bukar
Articles by Abubakar A. Muhammad
Articles by Ilya J. Ayok
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
Adegoke, A.A., Tom, M., Okoh, A.I.I., Jacob, S. 2010. Study on multiple antibiotic resistance bacteria isolated from the surgical site. Sci. Res. Ess. 5: 3876-3381.
Ajala, O.O., Okunlade, A.O., Ogundare, O.F., Adekemi, A., Sdeshoga, A., Afolabi, A.M., Oludare, R.E. 2011. The prevalence and identification of the bacteria associated with caprine vulvovaginitis in Ibadan. W. App. Sci. J. 1115-1118.
Ali, D.H., Metwally, A. 2015. Characterization of Enteropathogenic E. Coli and Antibiotic Resistance Properties in Diarrheic Pets. Alexandria J. Vet. Sci. 45: 99-104. [DOI via Crossref]   
Al-Zubaidi, S.F., Hasson, S.O., Ajeel, H.H. 2013. Isolation and identification of microflora species at different levels of the ewe genital tract. J. Agric. Vet. Sci. 6: 54-57.
Anguzu, J.R., Olila, D. 2007. Drugs sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolate from septic postoperative wounds in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. African Hlth Sci. 7: 148-154. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C., Tark, M. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by standardized single disk method. Amer. J. Clin. Path. 45: 493-495. [Pubmed]   
Bukar-Kolo, Y.M., Amin, J.D. and Zaria, L.T. 2007. Bacterial flora of the anterior genitalia of Sahelian doe in Maiduguri- Borno state, Nigeria. Nig. Vet. J. 28: 60-62.
CDC, 2011. Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in the Province of British Columbia. AMR trends report. Centre for Disease Control in the Province of British Columbia, British Columbia.
Chander, A., Raza, M.S. 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 6: 235-238.
Cowan, S.T., Steel, E.J. 1993. Manual for identification of medical bacteria. Cambridge University press, London, 2nd edition, London, pp. 152-209.
Dow, G., Browne, A., Sibbald, R.G. 1999. Infection in chronic contraverles in diagnosis and treatment. Ostomy/ Wound Management 45: 23-40. [Pubmed]   
Economou, V., Gousia, P. 2015. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Infec. Drug Resist. 8: 49—61. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Fontaine, E., Levy, X., Grellet, A., Luc, A., Bernex, F., Boulouis, H.J., Fontbonne, A. 2009. Diagnosis of Endometritis in the Bitch: A New Approach. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 44: 196-199. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Franco, B.E., Martinez, M.A., Rodriguez, M.A.S., Wertheimer, A.I. 2009. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process. Infec. Drug Resist. 2: 1-11. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Gabriel, M., Lucas, F., Bruno, P., Felipe, B., Renato, V., Carlos, V., Walter, L. 2008. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of vaginal bacteria from ewes treated with progestin impregnated intravaginal sponges. J. Amer. Int. Goat Assoc. 81: 182-184.
Garba, I., Lusa, Y.H., Bawa, E., Tijjani, M.B., Aliyu, M.S., Zango, U.U., Raji, M.I.O. 2012. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Wounds in Patients Attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Nig. J. Basic Applied Sci. 20: 32-34.
Gomez-Garces, J.-L., Alos, J.I., Tamayo, J., 2007. In vitro activity of linezolid and 12 other antimicrobials against coryneform bacteria. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 29: 688-692. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Goncagul, G., Intas, K.S., Kumru, I.H., Ozakin, C., OzdemirSalci, E.S., Weiss, R., Berninghoff, E.P., Baljer, G. 2012. Bacterial infertility and ascending uterine infections with respect to pneumovagina and urovagina in cows. Res. Opin.Anim. Vet. Sci.70: 583-586.
Khalil, S.A., Eraky, M.I. 2012. Microbiological Study of Escherichia Coli in Sheep. Alexandria J. Vet. Sci. 37: 62-68.
Lilani, S.P., Jangale, N., Chowdhary, A., Daver, G.B. 2005. Surgical infection in clean and cleancontaminated cases. Ind. J. Med. Microbiol. 23: 249-252.
Manes, J., Fiorentino, M.A., Kaiser, G., Hozbor, F., Alberio, R., Sanchez, E., Paolicchi, A. 2010. Changes in the aerobic vaginal flora after treatment with different intra-vaginal devices in ewes. Small Rumin. Res. 94: 201-204. [DOI via Crossref]   
Marshall, B.M., Ochieng, D.J., Levy, S.B. 2009. Commensals: unappreciated reservoir of antibiotic. Microbe 4:231-235. Microbe 4: 231-235.
Martins, G., Brandao, F.Z., Figuiera, L., Penna, B., Vasconcelos, C.O., Lilenbaum, W. 2009. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci isolated from the vagina of healthy ewes. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária 16: 37-40. [DOI via Crossref]   
Mshelia, G.D., Amin, J.D., and Chaundhary, S.U.R. 2001. Vaginal bacterial flora of Nigerian local bitches during different stages of reproductive cycle. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2: 183-185.
Mshelia, G.D., Bilal, V.T., Maina, V.A., Okon, K., Mamza, S.A., Peter, I.D., Egwu, G.O. 2014. Microbiological Studies on genital infections in slaughtered ewes from tropical arid zone of Nigeria. Sok. J. Vet. Sci. 12: 18-22. [DOI via Crossref]   
Pallechi, l., Bartoloni, A., Paradisi, F., Rossolini, G.M., 2008. Antibiotic resistance in the absence of antimicrobial use:mechanism and implications. Expert Rev. Antimicrob. infect. therapy. 6: 725-732.
Poole, K. 2005. Aminoglycoside resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 479-487. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Rollins, L.D., Teske, R.H., Condon, R.J., Carter, G.G. 1972. Serum penicillin and dihydro-streptomycin concentration in horses after intramuscular administration of selected preparations containing those antibiotics. Journal of the Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 161: 490-493. [Pubmed]   
Shallali, A.A., Hussein, A.M., Salih, M.M., Dafalla, E.A. 2001. A preliminary report on bacteria isolated from the female genital tract of Sudanese sheep and goats. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. 17: 55-63.
Shamin, M., Mumtaz, A., Irum, A., Naeem, A., Masoodul, H., Abdul, H. 2008. Aerobic Vaginal Pathogens and their Sensitivity Pattern. J. Ayub Med. Coll. Abbottabad 20: 113-117.
Sheriff, M.A., Goje, A.A., Zannah, M.W. 2014. Estimation of Global Solar Radiation Using Sunshine Duration in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Nig. J. Physics 25: 35-39.
Soulsby, E.J. 2005. Resistance to antimicrobials in humans and animals. British Med. J. 331: 1219-1220. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Sturgeon, C., Lamport, A.l., LLoyd, D.H., Muir, P. 2000. Bacteria contamination of suction tips used during surgical procedures performed on dogs and cats. Am. J. Res. 61: 779-783. [DOI via Crossref]   
Sugiura, K., Nishikawa, M., Ishiguro, K., Tajima, T., Inaba, M., Torii, R., Hatoya, S., Wijewardana, V., Kumagai, D., Tamada, H., Sawada, T., Ikehara, S., Inaba, T. 2004. Effect of ovarian hormones on periodical changes in immune resistance associated with estrous cycle in the beagle bitch. Immunobiology 209: 619-627. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Swartz, J.D., Lachman, M., Westveer, K., O`Neil, T., Geary, T., Kott, R.W., Beraradinelli, J.G., Hatfield, P.G., Thomson, J.M., Robert, A., Yeoman, C.J. 2014. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota of ewes and cows reveals a uniques microbiota with low levels of lactobacilliand near neutral pH. Front. Vet. Sci. 1-19.
Tariq, N., Jaffery, T., Ayub, R., Alam, A.Y., Javid, M.H., Shafique, S. 2006. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic vaginal isolates. J. Coll. Phys. Surgeons 16: 196-199.
Zhao, W.H., Hu, Z.Q. 2010. β- lactamases identified in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 36: 245-258. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. AJVS. 2016; 49(2): 6-12. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617


Web Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. http://www.alexjvs.com/?mno=230316 [Access: August 17, 2021]. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. AJVS. 2016; 49(2): 6-12. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. AJVS. (2016), [cited August 17, 2021]; 49(2): 6-12. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617



Harvard Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok (2016) Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. AJVS, 49 (2), 6-12. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617



Turabian Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok. 2016. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 49 (2), 6-12. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617



Chicago Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok. "Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 49 (2016), 6-12. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok. "Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 49.2 (2016), 6-12. Print. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Yachilla M. Bukar-kolo, Innocent D. Peter, Muhammad M. Bukar, Abubakar A. Muhammad, Ilya J. Ayok (2016) Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Skin, Wound and Anterior Vagina of Sheep, Goats and Dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 49 (2), 6-12. doi:10.5455/ajvs.218617





Most Viewed Articles
  • Assessment of The Efficiency of Some Chemical Disinfectants Used in poultry Farms Against Coccidiosis
    Hamed Abdel tawab Samaha, Yasser Nasr Haggag, Mohammed Al sayed Nossair, Heba Mohammed Habib
    AJVS. 2013; 39(1): 82-90
    » Abstract & References

  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333

  • Influence of Combined Administration of Turmeric and Black seed on Selected Biochemical Parameters of Diabetic Rats
    Sabry M. El-Bahr, Nabil M. Taha, Mahdy A. Korshom, Abd EL-Wahab A. Mandour, Mohamed A. Lebda
    AJVS. 2014; 41(1): 19-27
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.154650

  • Molecular Characterization of Listeria Species Isolated from Frozen Fish
    Gaber S. Abdellrazeq, Ayman M. Kamar, Samya M. El-Houshy
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 1-15
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.45443

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232

  • Most Downloaded
  • Comparative Study of Cellular and Humoral Immune Response to BHV-1 Vaccines in Cattle and Buffalo Calves
    Fayrouz S. Naim; Samy A. Khalil and Helmy A. Torky
    AJVS. 2016; 51(2): 367-373
    » Abstract

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232

  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333

  • Using of Polypropylene Mesh for Hernioplasty in Calves
    Mostafa M. kassam, Mahmoud H. Elkammer, Ahmed S. Korittum, Ali A. Abdel-Wahed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 112-117
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.47290

  • Influence of Combined Administration of Turmeric and Black seed on Selected Biochemical Parameters of Diabetic Rats
    Sabry M. El-Bahr, Nabil M. Taha, Mahdy A. Korshom, Abd EL-Wahab A. Mandour, Mohamed A. Lebda
    AJVS. 2014; 41(1): 19-27
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.154650

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333
    Cited : 10 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Effect of Dietary Replacement of Inorganic Zinc by Organic or Nanoparticles Sources on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Intestinal Histopathology of Broiler Chicken
    Mohamed El-Katcha, Mosad A. Soltan, M. El-badry
    AJVS. 2017; 55(2): 129-145
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.266925
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Molecular Characterization, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Salt Tolerance of Aeromonas hydrophila from Fresh, Brackish and Marine fishes
    Basma Dahdouh, Ola Basha, Samy Khalil, Mahmoud Tanekhy
    AJVS. 2016; 48(2): 46-53
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.208107
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The Growth Promoting Effect of Beta-glucan in Comparison with Sodium Butyrate in Broiler Chicks
    Abd El-Salam F. El-Sawy, Zeynab Kh. El-Maddawy, Hawary S. Ibrahiem and El-Sadeq Bo-Ghazel
    AJVS. 2015; 44(1): 23-37
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.163992
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]