E-ISSN 2536-9520 | ISSN 1110-2047
 

Original Article 


Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels

Thanaa K. Hassaneen, Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer.

Abstract
The current study aimed to isolate and characterize staphylococcus species and poxvirus in skin lesions of teats and udders of she-camels using conventional and molecular techniques with exploration of their histopathological alterations. A total of 82 tissue samples were collected from affected she-camels. Isolation of staphylococci was attained and determined their antibiogram. Isolation of poxvirus (on Vero cell and chorioallantoic membrane) was achieved and identified as camel poxvirus (CMLV) by virus neutraliztion test . Bacterial and viral isolates were confirmed by PCR. Sequencing and viral phylogenic analyses were performed to determine the homology of isolated sequences with other sequences available in GenBank and to identify the probabilities of zoonotic transmission. Staphylococci were isolated of which, 11 isolates were S.aureus. The other isolates were S.simulanis, S.hemolyticus and S.carnosus. PCR results confirmed S.aureus isolates by specific amplification of 279bp. Two poxviruses were successfully isolated (with titres of 105.5TCID50 and 104TCID50) and confirmed by PCR by amplification of 881bp. Sequence and phylogenic analyses revealed that the two pox isolates were resemble closely Al-Ahsaa strain (CMLV). Pathologically, the udder of she-camels with poxvirus showed crusts grossly and histopathological results revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis with degeneration of prickle cells. Udder affected with staphylococci showed edema with abscess grossly. Histopathology revealed pus, necrotic debris and inflammatory cells in the dermis. In conclusion, Isolation, PCR and sequencing with histopathological examination ensure the presence of (CMLV) and staphylocci in skin of udder and teat of she-camels also, confer high level of diagnostic assays for investigation of the diseases in dromedaries.

Key words: Histopathology, CMLV, S.aureus, Sequencing, phylogenic tree,


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Thanaa K. Hassaneen
Articles by Hamouda R.H.
Articles by Hala A. Salem
Articles by Jehan A. Gafer
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
Abdel-Baky, M.H., Al-Sukayran, A., Mazloum, K.S., Al. Bokmy, A.M., Al.Mujalli, D.M. 2006. Immunogenicity of camelpox virus, Jouf-78 vaccine strain in Boskat rabbits and Guinea pigs. In Proc. Of Int. Scientific Conference on Camels, pp: 358-368.
Abdelgadir, A. E. 2014. Mastitis in camels (Camelus dromedarius): Past and recent research in pastoral production system of both East Africa and Middle East. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health. 6 (7), 208-216.
Abdurahman, OS. H., Aga, H., Abbas, N., Astom, G. 1995. Relation between udder infection and somatic cells in Camelus dromedarius milk. Acta Vet. Scand., 63 (4): 424-431.
Afonso, C.L., Tulman, E.R., Lu, Z., Zsak, L., Sandybaev, N.T., Kerembekova, U.Z., et al. 2002. The genome of camelpox virus. Virol. 295: 1-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Ali, H.M.S., Khalafalla, A.I., Nimir, A.H. 2009. Detection of camelpox and vaccinia viruses by polymerase chain reaction. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 41: 1637-1641. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Alqurashi, A. M., Alamin, M. A., Elsheikh, A. S., Yasin, T. E. 2013. Sensitivity of bacterial isolates from mastitic She-camel (Camelus dromedaries) to antibiotics. J. of American Sci. 9 (4): pp 47-52.
AL-Tofaily, M. A. N. 2011. Bacteriological study on mastitis in she-camels(Camelus dromedarius) in some areas of middle Euphrates in Iraq. Rodhan AL-Qadisiya, J. Vet. Med.Sci.(10) 2, pp. 301-310.
Al-Ziabi, O., Nishikawa, H., Meyer, H. 2007.The first outbreak of camelpox in Syria. J Vet Med Sci. 69(5):541-543. [DOI via Crossref]   
Balamurugan, V., Bhanuprakash, V., Hosamani, M., Jayappa, K.D., Venkatesan, G., Chauhan, B., et al. 2009. A polymerase chain reaction strategy for the diagnosis of camelpox. J Vet Diagn Invest. 21(2):231-237. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Bancroft, J. D., Stevens, A. 1990. Theory and Practice of histological Techniques. 3rd edition, New York.
Barakat, F. A., AL Hizab, S.A., El-Bahr, S. M. 2013. Clinicopathological and Serobiochemical Investigation of Naturally Occurring Cutaneous Papillomatosis in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Sci. Int. (1) 6.
Baxby, D., 1972. Smallpox-like viruses from camels in Iran. Lancet 2, 1063-1065. [DOI via Crossref]   
Bekele , M. 2010. An epidemiological study of major camel diseases. In the Borana lowland, Southern Ethiopia. DCG Report No. 58.
Blanc, D. S., Francioli, P., Le-Coustumier, A., Gazagne, L., Lecaillon, E., Gueudet, P., Vandenesch, F., Etienne J. 2001. Reemergence of gentamicin-susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in France: a phylogenetic approach. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39(6):2287-2290. [DOI via Crossref]   
Bera, B.C., Shanmugasundaram, K., Barua, S., Venkatesan, G., Virmani, N., Riyesh, T.et al. 2011. Zoonotic cases of camelpox infection in India. Vet. Microbiol. 152 (1-2):29-38. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Bergey’s manual (2005): Systematic bacteriology. Vol. 2 pp. 1016-1017.
Bhanuprakash, V., Balamurugan, V., Hosamani, M., Venkatesan, G., Chauhan, B., Srinivasan, V.A., Chauhan, R.S., Pathak, K.M.L., Singh, R.K. 2010. Isolation and characterization of Indian isolates of Camelpox virus. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod 42: 1271-1275. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Bornstein, S., Younan, M. 2013. Significant veterinary research on the dromedary camels of Kenya : Past and Present. J. Camelid Sci. 6: 1-48.
Brakstad, O., Aasbakk, G.K., Maeland, J.A. 1992. Detection of staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc gene. J. Clin. Microbiol., 30: 1654-1660. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Brook, I. 2002. Secondary bacterial infections complicating skin lesions. J. Med. Microbiol. 51:808-812. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Christou, L. 2011. The global burden of bacterial and viral zoonotic infections. Clin. Microbial. and infect., 17(3), pp. 326-30.
Damon, I. 2007. Poxviruses. In: Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M. (Eds.), Fields Virology, 5th edition. Lippincot Williams & Wilkins, pp. 2947-2975.
Elliot, H., Tuppurainen, E. 2010. Camelpox. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2010, 1177-1184.
Gubser, C., Smith, G.L. 2002. The sequence of camelpox virus shows it is most closely related to variola virus, the cause of smallpox. J. Gen. Virol. 83, 855-872. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Gubser, C., Hué, S., Kellam, P., Smith, G. L. 2004. Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis. J. General Virol. 85: 105-117. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Henry, J.B. 2001. Clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods. 20th ed. New York: W.B. Saunders Company.
Jerzy, R., Magdalena, L., Mirosław, P.P. 2005. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 from an outbreak of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Bull Vet. Inst. Pulawy 49: 267-271.
Jezek, Z., Kriz, B., Rothbauer, V. 1983. Camel pox and its risk to the human population. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol. Immunol. 27:29-42. [Pubmed]   
Jubb, K.V.F., Kennedy, P.C., Palmer, N. 1997.Pathology of domestic animals . Academic Press Inc. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. San Diego, New Yourk . Boston, London, Sydney, Tokyo and Toronto.
Khalafalla, A.I., Mohamed, M.E.M., Ali, B.H. 1998. Camel pox in the Sudan: Isolation and identification of the causative virus. J. Camel Prac. Res. 5: 229-233.
Kulyaisan, T. S., Vitaliy, M. S., Yerbol, D. B., Olga, V. C., Kamshat, A. S., Nurlan, T. S., et al. 2014. Test system for camelpox virus detection by polymerase chain reaction field testing. J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(4)74-79.
Malik, B. 1986. A Laboratory Manual of Veterinary Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology , 2ndedn. CBS Publishers and distributors, New Delhi, India,PP. 115 - 116.
Manimuthu, P., Revanaiah, Y., Selvaraj, P., Chinnathambi, S., Gopal, S., Raj Kumar, S. 2015. Camelpox and Buffalopox: Two Emerging and Re-emerging Orthopox Viral Diseases of India. Adv. in Anim. Vet. Sci., 3 (10) pp 527-541.
Meyer, H., Pfeffer, M., Rziha, H. J. 1994. Sequence alterations within and downstream of the A-type inclusion protein genes allow differentiation of Orthopoxvirus species by polymerase chain reaction. J. Gen. Virol. 75:1975-1981. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Mike, B., Shawn, B. 2011. Camel pox: Target for eradication? Antiviral Research, 92, (2), Pp 164-166. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Monecke, S., Elke, M. l., Joseph, B. C., Bettina, S., Ralf, E. 2014. Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro Secretion of Alpha Toxin (hla) Correlates with the Affiliation to Clonal Complexes. PLOS ONE, 9, (6), 1-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Monday, S.R., Bohach, G.A. 1999. Use of multiplex PCR to detect classical and newly described pyrogenic toxin genes in staphylococcal isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol., 37: 3411-3414. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Mosadeghhesari, M., Oryan, A., Zibaee, S., Varshovi, H.R. 2014. Molecular investigation and cultivation of camelpox virus in Iran. Arch Virol. 159 (11):3005-3011. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
MOSS, B. 2001. Poxviruses. In Fields Virology, 4th ed., Vol.2, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins publishers, Philaadelphia, Pennsylvania, pp. 2849-2884.
Nagase, N. A., Shimizu, J. K., Yamashita, H. K., Ishimara, Y. M., Kawamo, A. 2002. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from Bovine mastitis in Japan. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64:1169-1172. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
OIE, 2014. Camel Pox. OIE Terrestrial Manual. Chapter 2 . 9 . 2 . 1-14.
Qureshi, S., Kataria, A.K., Gahlot, T.K. 2002. Bacterial Microflora Associated with wounds and abscesses on camel (Camelus dromedarius) Skin. J. Camel Practice Res. 9: (2) 129 -134.
Patrick, M. K. N., Stefania, D., Christoph, J., John, W., Christophe, L., Leo, M. 2013. Biodiversity and Enterotoxigenic Potential of Staphylococci Isolated from Raw and Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk. British Microbiol. Res. J. 3(2): 128-138. [DOI via Crossref]   
Petersen, A., Stegger, M., Heltberg, O., Christensen, J., Zeuthen, A., Knudsen, L., et al. 2013. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the novel mecC gene in Denmark corroborates a zoonotic reservoir with transmission to humans. Clin. Microbiol. and infec., 19(1): E16-22.
Reed, L.M., Muench, H. 1938. A simple method of estimating 50 percent end points. Am. J., 27: 493-495.
Regassa, A., Golicha, G., Tesfaye, D. 2013. Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 45: 1589-1595. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Reischl, U., Pluz, M., Ehret, W., Wolf, H. 1994. PCR-based detection of mycobacteria in sputum samples using a simple and reliable DNA extraction protocol. Bio. Techniques. 17: 844-845. [Pubmed]   
Robinson, A.J., Balassu, T. C. 1981. "Contagious pustular dermatitis (ORF)." Vet. Bulletin, 51: 771.
Ruchi, T., Sharad, K.Y., Shanker, S., Neeraj, K.G. 2015. Bacterial Etiology of Skin and Wound Infections along with Antibiogram Profiling in Reference to Emerging Antibiotic Resistance in Animals. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci., 3 (5). 259. [DOI via Crossref]   
Saleh, S.K., Faye, B. 2011. Detection of subclinical mastitis in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedaries) using somatic cell counts, california mastitis test and udder pathogen. Emir. J. Food Agric. 23 (1): 48-58.
Sheikh Ali, H.M., Nimir, A.H., Khalafalla, A.I. 2009. Growth characteristic of Camel pox and Vaccinia viruses in embryonated eggs and cell culture. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 41:393-396. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Sophie, D., Hermann, M., Graciela, A., Robert, S. 2011. camel pox virus. Antiviral Res., 92pp. 167-186.
Steinig, E. J., Patiyan, A., Simon, R. H., Derek, S. S., Anand, M., Paul, C., et al. 2015. Single-molecule sequencing reveals the molecular basis of multidrug-resistance in ST772 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. BMC Genomics 16:388, 1599-1609. [DOI via Crossref]   
Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., Kumar, S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evolution 30: 2725-2729. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Tanand, B. C., Bera, R.T., Vaid, R. K., Baru, S. A., Nitin, V.N., Praveen, M.K., et al. 2013. Cytopathogenicity of buffalopox and camelpox virus in buffalo fibroblast cells) Indian J. Animal Sci. 83 (12): 1256-1260.
Tantawi, H., El- Dahaby, H., Fahmy, L. 1978. Comparative studies on poxvirus strains isolated from camels. Acta.Virol. 22: 451-457. [Pubmed]   
Veerakyathappa, B., Manimuthu, P., Gnanavel, V., Vinayagamurthy, B., Madhusudan, H., Krishna, M.L.P. Raj Kumar, S. 2010. Camelpox: epidemiology, diagnosis and control measures. Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 8(10), 1187-1201. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Vinayagamurthy, B., Veerakyathappa, B., Madhusudhan, H., Kallesh, D.J., Gnanavel, V., Bina, C., Raj Kumar, S. 2009. A polymerase chain reaction strategy for the diagnosis of camelpox. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:231-237. [DOI via Crossref]   
Wernery, U., Meyer, H., Pfeffer, M. 1997. Camel pox in the United Arab Emirates and its prevention. J. of Camel Practice and Res. 4: 135-139.
Wilson, R. T. 1998. The camel. 1st ed. Longman Group limited, Harlow, Essex, U.K., 223 pp.
Yassein, M. A. M., Abdelgadir, B. A. 2014. Isolation and Identification of Camelpox Virus in Eastern Sudan. SUST J. of Agricult. and Vet. Sci. (SJAVS) 15 (2) pp.73-81.
Yeager, J.A., Scott, D.W.,Wilcock, B.P. 1991. Viral diseases of the skin. In: Pathology of Domestic Animals, Fourth Edition. Jubb, K.V.F.; Kennedy, P.C.& Palmer, N. (Eds).Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 629-644.
Younan, M., Ali, Z., Bornstein, S., Müller, W. 2001. Application of the California mastitis test in intramammary Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus infections of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. Preventive Vet. Med., 51(3-4), pp. 307-16. [DOI via Crossref]   
Yousif, A.A., Al-Naeem, A. 2011. Molecular characterization of enzootic camel pox in eastern province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int J Virol. 7(4):135-146. [DOI via Crossref]   

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer. Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels. AJVS. 2015; 47(1): 78-89. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127


Web Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer. Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels. http://www.alexjvs.com/?mno=202127 [Access: November 28, 2020]. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer. Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels. AJVS. 2015; 47(1): 78-89. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer. Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels. AJVS. (2015), [cited November 28, 2020]; 47(1): 78-89. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127



Harvard Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer (2015) Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels. AJVS, 47 (1), 78-89. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127



Turabian Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer. 2015. Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 47 (1), 78-89. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127



Chicago Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer. "Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 47 (2015), 78-89. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer. "Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 47.1 (2015), 78-89. Print. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Thanaa K. Hassaneen , Hamouda R.H., Hala A. Salem, Jehan A. Gafer (2015) Pathomolecular Studies on Staphylococcus Species and Pox Virus Causing Skin Lesions in Teat and Udder of Dromedary She-Camels. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 47 (1), 78-89. doi:10.5455/ajvs.202127





Most Viewed Articles
  • Assessment of The Efficiency of Some Chemical Disinfectants Used in poultry Farms Against Coccidiosis
    Hamed Abdel tawab Samaha, Yasser Nasr Haggag, Mohammed Al sayed Nossair, Heba Mohammed Habib
    AJVS. 2013; 39(1): 82-90
    » Abstract & References

  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333

  • Influence of Combined Administration of Turmeric and Black seed on Selected Biochemical Parameters of Diabetic Rats
    Sabry M. El-Bahr, Nabil M. Taha, Mahdy A. Korshom, Abd EL-Wahab A. Mandour, Mohamed A. Lebda
    AJVS. 2014; 41(1): 19-27
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.154650

  • Molecular Characterization of Listeria Species Isolated from Frozen Fish
    Gaber S. Abdellrazeq, Ayman M. Kamar, Samya M. El-Houshy
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 1-15
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.45443

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232

  • Most Downloaded
  • Comparative Study of Cellular and Humoral Immune Response to BHV-1 Vaccines in Cattle and Buffalo Calves
    Fayrouz S. Naim; Samy A. Khalil and Helmy A. Torky
    AJVS. 2016; 51(2): 367-373
    » Abstract

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232

  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333

  • Using of Polypropylene Mesh for Hernioplasty in Calves
    Mostafa M. kassam, Mahmoud H. Elkammer, Ahmed S. Korittum, Ali A. Abdel-Wahed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 112-117
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.47290

  • Influence of Combined Administration of Turmeric and Black seed on Selected Biochemical Parameters of Diabetic Rats
    Sabry M. El-Bahr, Nabil M. Taha, Mahdy A. Korshom, Abd EL-Wahab A. Mandour, Mohamed A. Lebda
    AJVS. 2014; 41(1): 19-27
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.154650

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333
    Cited : 10 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Effect of Dietary Replacement of Inorganic Zinc by Organic or Nanoparticles Sources on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Intestinal Histopathology of Broiler Chicken
    Mohamed El-Katcha, Mosad A. Soltan, M. El-badry
    AJVS. 2017; 55(2): 129-145
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.266925
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Molecular Characterization, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Salt Tolerance of Aeromonas hydrophila from Fresh, Brackish and Marine fishes
    Basma Dahdouh, Ola Basha, Samy Khalil, Mahmoud Tanekhy
    AJVS. 2016; 48(2): 46-53
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.208107
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The Growth Promoting Effect of Beta-glucan in Comparison with Sodium Butyrate in Broiler Chicks
    Abd El-Salam F. El-Sawy, Zeynab Kh. El-Maddawy, Hawary S. Ibrahiem and El-Sadeq Bo-Ghazel
    AJVS. 2015; 44(1): 23-37
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.163992
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]