E-ISSN 2536-9520 | ISSN 1110-2047
 

Original Article 


Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary.

Cited by (1)

Abstract
Canine overpopulation is a worldwide problemespecially in rural areafor this reason many researches have been performed to choose the most effective and less invasive technique for sterilization of male dogs with minimal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible outcomes and complications following bilateral electrocoagulation of testicular blood supply, as a method of sterilization of male dogs.Sixstray male dogs were used in this work. Electrocoagulation of the testicular blood supply was induced through a prescrotal 1-2 cm incision length followed by separation of spermatic cord and exposure of testicular blood vessels. The outcomes were measured depending on clinical signs, Histopathological evaluation, ultrasonographical evaluation and testosterone level estimation. Overall results were satisfactory. Electrocoagulation of testicles was accompanied by a very short prescrotal incision with less operation time. Some difficulty was relevant during dissection and separation of testicular blood supply with mild to moderate bleeding. Some inflammatory reaction followed by marked testicular atrophy was observed. Severe coagulative necrosis of seminephrous tubules and remnants only of mature spermatozoa were found. Ultrasonographical findings revealed marked decrease in testicular dimensions with uniform hypoechoic appearance of testicular matrix. It could be concluded that bilateral Electrocoagulation was proved to be safe and effective method for dog sterilization without any complication.

Key words: Dog, sterilization, electro cautery, testicular blood vessels, testosterone


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Adel Sobhy
Articles by Mostafa M. Kassem
Articles by Howaida Abu-Ahmed
Articles by Ahmed El-khamary
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
Abd-el wahed, R.E., Korritum, A.S., Abu-ahmed, Howaida, Asmaa, A., Samy. 2014. Evaluation of Pinhole Castration Technique Compared With Traditional Method For Castration In Dogs, 42(1): 90-98.
Abu-Ahmed, H.M., El-Kammar, M.H., EL-Neweshy, M.S., Abdel-Wahed, R.E. 2012. Comparative evaluation of three in-situ castration techniques for sterilizing donkeys: Incision-ligation (a novel technique), section-ligation, release, and pinhole. J. Equine Vet. Sci.32: 711-718. [DOI via Crossref]   
Adin, C.A., Scansen, B.A. 2011. Complications of upper urinary tract surgery in companion animals. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 41(5): 869-888. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Baba, M.A., Fazili, M.R., Athar, H., Mir, M.S., Moulvi, B.A., Khan. 2013. Pinhole castration technique: An alternative to orchiectomy in stray dogs. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 137 (1-2):113-118. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Bergh, A., Collin, O., Lissbrant, E. 2001. Effects of acute graded reduction in testicular blood flow on testicular morphology in adult rats. Biol. Reprod. 64:13-20. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Booth, H.W. 2003. Testes and epididymides, In: Slatter DH, editor. Textbook of small animal Surgery.3rd edition. Philadelphia: Saunders. 2 (30): 1521.
Cox, J.E. 1993. Cryptorchidcastration In: Mckinnon AO, Voss JL, editors.Equine reproduction. Philadelphia, PA: WBSaunders, P: 915-21. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Howe, L.M. 2006. Surgical methods of contraception and sterilization. Theriogenol.66(3):500-509. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Huber, D.H., Hong, S., Ross, J.A. 1986. The international experience with vasectomy. In: Zatuchni, G.I., Goldsmith, A., Spieler, J.M., editors. Male contraception: advances and future prospects. Philadelphia Harper &Row. P: 7 -8.
Jana, K., Ghosh, D., Samanta, P.K. 2005. Evaluation of single intratesticular injection of calcium chloride for non-surgical sterilization of male goats (Capra hircus): a dose dependent study. Anim. Reprod. Sci.; 86:89 - 108. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Jana, K., Samanta, P.K., Ghosh, D. 2002. Dose dependent response to an intratesticular injection of calcium chloride for induction of chemosterilization in adult albino rats. Vet. Res. Commun. 26:651- 673. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Jana, K., Samanta, P.K. 2007. Sterilization of male stray dogs with a single intratesticular injection of calcium chloride: a dose dependent study. Contracept.75 (5): 390-400. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Jean, G., Gaughan, E., Contable, P. 1992. Cryptorchidism in North Americancattle: breed predisposition and clinical findings. Theriogenol. 38:951-958. [DOI via Crossref]   
Kumar, V., Raj, A., Kumar, P. 2011. Pregnancy diagnosis by laparoscopy in free range rhesus macaques (Macacamulatta). Open Vet. J. 1: 32-34. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
Levy, J.K., Crawford, P.C., Appel, L.D. et al. 2008. Comparison of intratesticular injection of zinc gluconate versus surgical castration to sterilize male dogs. Journal of the American Vet. Med. Associat. 69(1): 140-143.
Massarweh, N.N., Cosgriff, N., Slakey, D.P. 2006. Electrosurgery: History, Principles, and Current and Future Uses, 202: 3.
Memon, M.A. 1994. Surgical diathermy. Br. J. of hospital med, 52 (8): 403-408. [Pubmed]   
Morrow, D.A. 1986. Current therapy in theriogenology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company.
Munro, M.G. 1995. Energy sources for operative laparoscopy. In: Gomel V, Taylor PJ, eds. Diagnostic and operative gynecologic laparoscopy. St Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 25-26. [Pubmed]   
Naccarato, E.F., Hunter, W.S. 1979. Anaesthetic effects of various ratios of ketamine and xylazine in rhesus monkeys (Macacamulatta). Lab Anim. 13(4), 317-319 [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Okwee-Acai, J., Acon, J., Okello- owiny, D., Agwai, B., Oloya, J. 2008. Evaluation of pinhole castration as an alternative technique for goat sterilization. Bullet. Anim. health Prod. Africa.56: 299-306.
Olson, P.N., Nett, T.M., Bowen, R.A., et al. 1986. A need for sterilization, contraceptives, and abortifacients: abandoned and unwanted pets. Part I. Current methods of sterilizing pets. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 8: 87-92.
Phillips, J.T., Leeds, E.B. 1976. A closed technique for canine orchidectomy. Canine Pract. 3:23-26.
Ponvijay, K.S. 2007. Pinhole Castration: A. novel minimally invasive technique for in situ spermatic cord ligation. Vet. Surg. 36: 74 - 79. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Samanta, P.K. 1998. Chemosterilization of stray dogs. Indian-Journal-of-Animal-Health., 37: (1) 61-62.
Smith, G.I. 1955. Cellular changes from graded testicular ischemia. J. Urol.73: 355-362. [Pubmed]   
Tobias, K.M. 2010. Canine Castration. In: “Manual of small Animal Soft Tissue Surgery,” 1st Ed., Ames, Iowa: Wiley - Black well, PP. 215 -223.
Turkstra, J.A., van der Meer, F.M., Knaap, J., Rottier, P.M., Teerds, K.J. 2005. Colenbrander B, et al. Effects of GnRH immunization in sexually mature pony stallions. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 86: 247-259. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Turner, T.T., Brown, K.J., 1993. Spermatic cord torsion: loss of spermatogenesis despite return of blood flow. Biol. Reprod. 49: 401-407. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
Wu, M.P., Ou, C.S., Chen, S.L., Yen, E.Y.T., Rowbotham, R. 2000. Complications and recommended practises for electrosurgery in laporoscopy. Am. J. Surg. 179: 67-73. [DOI via Crossref]   

This Article Cited By the following articles

Ultrasonographic and histopathologic changes following injection of neutral zinc gluconate in dog’s ovaries
Comp Clin Pathol 2017; 26(5): 1093.

1
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary. Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels. AJVS. 2016; 48(1): 87-92. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606


Web Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary. Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels. http://www.alexjvs.com/?mno=207606 [Access: August 17, 2021]. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary. Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels. AJVS. 2016; 48(1): 87-92. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary. Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels. AJVS. (2016), [cited August 17, 2021]; 48(1): 87-92. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606



Harvard Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary (2016) Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels. AJVS, 48 (1), 87-92. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606



Turabian Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary. 2016. Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 48 (1), 87-92. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606



Chicago Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary. "Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 48 (2016), 87-92. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary. "Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 48.1 (2016), 87-92. Print. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Adel Sobhy, Mostafa M. Kassem, Howaida Abu-Ahmed, Ahmed El-khamary (2016) Sterilization of Male Dogs by Bilateral Electrocoagulation of Testicular Blood Vessels. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 48 (1), 87-92. doi:10.5455/ajvs.207606





Most Viewed Articles
  • Assessment of The Efficiency of Some Chemical Disinfectants Used in poultry Farms Against Coccidiosis
    Hamed Abdel tawab Samaha, Yasser Nasr Haggag, Mohammed Al sayed Nossair, Heba Mohammed Habib
    AJVS. 2013; 39(1): 82-90
    » Abstract & References

  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333

  • Influence of Combined Administration of Turmeric and Black seed on Selected Biochemical Parameters of Diabetic Rats
    Sabry M. El-Bahr, Nabil M. Taha, Mahdy A. Korshom, Abd EL-Wahab A. Mandour, Mohamed A. Lebda
    AJVS. 2014; 41(1): 19-27
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.154650

  • Molecular Characterization of Listeria Species Isolated from Frozen Fish
    Gaber S. Abdellrazeq, Ayman M. Kamar, Samya M. El-Houshy
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 1-15
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.45443

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232

  • Most Downloaded
  • Comparative Study of Cellular and Humoral Immune Response to BHV-1 Vaccines in Cattle and Buffalo Calves
    Fayrouz S. Naim; Samy A. Khalil and Helmy A. Torky
    AJVS. 2016; 51(2): 367-373
    » Abstract

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232

  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333

  • Using of Polypropylene Mesh for Hernioplasty in Calves
    Mostafa M. kassam, Mahmoud H. Elkammer, Ahmed S. Korittum, Ali A. Abdel-Wahed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 112-117
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.47290

  • Influence of Combined Administration of Turmeric and Black seed on Selected Biochemical Parameters of Diabetic Rats
    Sabry M. El-Bahr, Nabil M. Taha, Mahdy A. Korshom, Abd EL-Wahab A. Mandour, Mohamed A. Lebda
    AJVS. 2014; 41(1): 19-27
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.154650

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to sublethal doses of cadmium
    Ahmed M. EL-Gazzar, Khalid E. Ashry, Yasser S. El-Sayed
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 29-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48333
    Cited : 10 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Immune response and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks Fed on Graded Levels of Wheat Instead of Corn without or With Enzyme Supplementation
    Mohamed I. El-Katcha, Mosaad A. Soltan, Hany F. El-Kanwy, EL-syaed R. kawarie
    AJVS. 2014; 40(1): 95-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.48232
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Effect of Dietary Replacement of Inorganic Zinc by Organic or Nanoparticles Sources on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Intestinal Histopathology of Broiler Chicken
    Mohamed El-Katcha, Mosad A. Soltan, M. El-badry
    AJVS. 2017; 55(2): 129-145
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.266925
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Molecular Characterization, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Salt Tolerance of Aeromonas hydrophila from Fresh, Brackish and Marine fishes
    Basma Dahdouh, Ola Basha, Samy Khalil, Mahmoud Tanekhy
    AJVS. 2016; 48(2): 46-53
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.208107
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The Growth Promoting Effect of Beta-glucan in Comparison with Sodium Butyrate in Broiler Chicks
    Abd El-Salam F. El-Sawy, Zeynab Kh. El-Maddawy, Hawary S. Ibrahiem and El-Sadeq Bo-Ghazel
    AJVS. 2015; 44(1): 23-37
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ajvs.163992
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]